The purpose of this test is to evaluate a Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor’s inductive, referenced, output voltage during engine cranking.
This known good waveform has the following characteristics:
A Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor provides an Engine Control Module (ECM) with its primary engine timing reference signal. The ECM uses the signal to calculate the engine speed and position for accurate injection and ignition control. The signal is also used to detect engine speed anomalies from misfires etc.
An inductive CKP sensor consists of a circuit with a wire coiled around a magnet. The sensor is accompanied by a pulse wheel, typically arranged about the flywheel circumference. The pulse wheel passes through and disturbs the sensor magnetic field inducing a circuit voltage. The induced voltage depends on engine speed: the faster the pulse wheel rotates, the greater the magnetic field disturbance.
When either the tooth or gap centres align with the sensor, there is an equal and opposite magnetic field disturbance and no voltage is induced. Conversely, as either a tooth leading or trailing edge aligns with the sensor, the magnetic field disturbance and induced voltage are greatest.
Positive voltage is produced when a tooth leading edge is closer than its trailing edge, and a negative voltage is produced in the opposite case.
The missing tooth on the pulse wheel provides the main timing reference mark. As the gap passes through the magnetic field, there is a period of reduced disturbance and voltage. Furthermore, the trailing and leading edge of the teeth that immediately precede and follow the gap are further apart, thus they produce a larger net magnetic field disturbance and induced voltage.
The CKP sensor signal is critical to ECM operation and it will not start or run an engine if the signal is missing or faulty. Therefore, the sensor can cause engine cranking but not starting, or engine cutting out symptoms.
Possible faults are:
A two pin CKP sensor and ECM circuit can be arranged in two ways, with either:
Selection of component related Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs):
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