Yes, possible. Try piezo sensors, or Stelmans chasiss ear, or Diesel RPM pick up.
The key is interpretation of the data. Piston pin knock, valvetrain noise, or chain slap. It varies on engine to engine due to design and failures. Also there is error from sensor to sensor.
I gathered some data and can ID some failures, but it is a wide area to cover.
Usefull on 3V Ford engines to distinguish chain failures, monitoring Injector pintle opening on high pressures common rail. Valve train noise indentification. Confirming solenoid operation without electrical hook up.
If people are interested I can post some interesting case studies.